of a standard manual sign to fit the childs visual, cognitive,
and motor abilities or to accommodate for the childs visual
impairment or learning needs.
Based on the work of Jan van Dijk, co-active
movement is defined as moving together with the child. The adult
or peer performs movements (may include objects) concurrently
with the child.
guidance of childs hand(s) to facilitate production of
a standard manual sign for expressive communication.
Physically moving a childs hand(s)
through an action or activity.
Placing a hand(s) under a childs
hand(s) to encourage interaction and access to information.
Active exploration of an objects
size, shape, or texture that results in its identification.
of signs involving a sender and receiver in conversational interaction
in contrast to coactive signing.
Involves joint attention and sharing an
activity or object through non-controlling mutual touch.
An object or part of an object used to
refer to a person, place, object, or activity. This object may
be used in the actual situation.
An object or part of an object used to
refer to a person, place, object, or activity. This object is
not used in the actual situation.
A concrete representation of daily activities
using objects or parts of objects.
A standard manual sign that a signer produces
directly onto the receivers body, (e.g., face, chest,
The sense of touch as perceived by the
skin (includes receptors that perceive pain, temperature, movement,
pressure, and vibration).
to the sense of touch or act of touching. "Tactile"
is synonymous with "tactual".
The ability to perceive similarities and
differences of various stimuli to the skin, either when touching
objects or when being touched by someone or something.
use of tactile information for interaction and development of
An increased or heightened sensitivity
to tactile stimulation. Characterized by observable negative
behavioral responses to certain types of tactile stimuli that
most people would not find aversive. Also known as tactile defensiveness.
Decreased awareness or sensitivity to
tactile stimulation that results in a lack of response or muted
Demonstration of an activity by having
the child (observer) feel the demonstrators actions by
touching parts of the body and objects involved in the action.
The observer (child) who is blind feels
anothers actions by touching parts of the persons
body and object involved in the action, then performs the action.
Distinctive physical or tactile characteristics
of an item that make it easy to discriminate through the sense
Communication method based on a standard
manual sign system in which the receivers hand(s) is placed
lightly upon the hand(s) of the signer to perceive the signs
Vibrotactile communication method in which
the receiver who is deaf-blind places a hand(s) on the speakers
face to perceive what is being said.
A communication system that includes three-dimensional
symbols (objects) and two-dimensional symbols (photographs and
drawings) for children who do not understand the meaning of
abstract symbols. Rowland and Schweigert (2000) include photos
and drawings because they are permanent, can be touched and
manipulated, and have a perceptual link to their referents.
Tactilely salient, three-dimensional and
artificial representations associated with people, objects,
and activities and used for receptive and expressive communication.
These symbols can be abstract or closely related to their referent.
touch made in a consistent manner directly on the body to communicate
with a child. It may be a prompt to encourage the childs
action, e.g., to choose a toy; or to help the child anticipate
an activity, e.g., touching the childs foot before putting
on his shoe. A touch cue may also be a comment, e.g, a pat on
the back for praise "I like that" or a touch on the
arm as a greeting "Im here."
list of Definitions represents a synthesis of information
from Project SALUTEs focus groups, National Advisory Committee,
staff activities, and a review of relevant literature such as
the following bibliography.